Experiments are described in this paper whose results suggest a clear mathematical relationship between total circuit resistance (including the capacitor’s ESR) and the voltage at which a capacitor is likely to break down. Specifically, the relationship defines how much each capacitor’s (not precisely known) breakdown voltage is affected by changes in circuit resistance.
The ever-growing price of precious metals has promoted the widespread use of nickel and copper in the internal electrodes and end terminations of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs). While these base metal electrode (BME) capacitors are less expensive than capacitors made with palladium and silver/palladium, their unique production process produces an identifiable wear-out mechanism.
This paper is companion to Y. Freeman’s and P. Lessner’s paper  introducing a new Flawless Technology with Simulated Breakdown Screening, (F-TECH) for manufacturing MnO2 style Tantalum (Ta) capacitors. (Part 2 of 2)
The key technologies necessary in the development of electrolytes and the effects of the resultant electrolyte on the overall performance of capacitors, such as dielectric breakdown voltages and stability during endurance testing, are discussed.
Surface amount electrolytic capacitors may have different derating rules associated with them, depending on their dielectric and cathode technologies. This CARTS 2004 paper shows why Tantalum, KO-CAP®, and AO-CAP® Capacitors have different derating guidelines.